There are many different parts to a Windows name and we will explain them all here:
- example: Windows 10
- Marketing name
- example: Windows 10 Pro
- Home, Pro, IoT, Embedded, Enterprise and Education are all options here
- example: 32bit or 64 Bit
- how much data can be moved into memory in one cycle
- More is better but requires the hardware to support it
- 128bit coming by 2020?
- example: 1607
- 2 Digit Year + 2 Digit Month (i.e. 2016 July release)
- example: 14393
- This number is incremented every time the developers inside Microsoft recompile their code which is typically once per day
For more information on builds and versions and how to figure out what you have see THIS post.